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Summer and Winter

   1-2 ESO (12-14 years old)

Why do the seasons exist? 


Material that could add value if prepared before coming to ESAC:

  • Sun-Earth-Moon movements. Energy: heat and temperature.
  • Videos 

Material that will be used at ESACScientific Case.


The paths of the planets were observed by Tycho Brahe at the end of the 16th century. After his death, in 1601, Johannes Kepler used this data to develop a set of laws that describe the way the planets move  around the Sun. We already know that the Earth rotates and moves around the Sun, but thanks to Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, we also know that the Earth is inclining approximately 23 degrees. That is, the Earth's Axis is not perpendicular to the Sun, but is inclined.


Earth inclination in summer and winter seasons. Credit: Planet Science (modified from wikimedia.org)


  • This Experience can be complemented with the following activity in the “Planetario de Madrid”: Polaris